A Bone Marrow transplant is used to replace the bone marrow which is damaged or destroyed by disease, infection, or radiation. Also called Stem cell transplant, it is used to treat blood diseases and cancers such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and some types of lymphoma. The transplant procedure includes taking the donor’s healthy blood cells and putting them in the patient’s bloodstream, where they begin to grow and make healthy blood cells. Bone Marrow, the soft, spongy tissues inside bones, makes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets which is responsible for carrying oxygen and nutrients throughout the body and to fight infections. The Bone marrow transplant becomes necessary when the person’s marrow is not healthy enough to function properly.
The transplant procedure begins when a suitable donor is found whose stem cells match with that of the patient. Before the transplant, the patient receives heavy doses of chemotherapy to kill the cancer cells. The radiation also kills the remaining marrow and allows new stem cells to grow. The stem cells are then delivered into the patient’s body intravenously, which is similar to blood transfusion. Book appointment with specialist and get get treatment for your issue.
The Autologous transplant uses the patient’s stem cells. Before the chemotherapy and radiation therapy, the bone marrow transplant specialist extracts the cells from the patient’s bloodstream and stores in a freezer until the transplant. This type of transplant also called a rescue transplant eliminates the need for a donor. This transplant is possible only when the patient has healthy bone marrow, which isn’t always the case.
The allogeneic transplant involves the donor’s cells. This transplant usually takes longer as the special tests are done to identify if the donor is a good match for the patient. Often, a relative is a close match. Until the donor is found, the patient continues with an alternative treatment to treat the underlying disease.
This is a part of allogeneic transplants where the stem cells are extracted from the new born’s umbilical cord and stored until they are needed for transplant.
These types of transplants are used more often where the match is 50% and not 100%. The donor is usually a parent, child, or siblings.
Depending on the patient’s health condition, the type of transplant is decided, Book Appointment to evaluate the possibilities. The transplant is a painless procedure and the patient is awake throughout the transplant. The central intravenous catheter is installed near the patient’s upper right part, neck or arm, and the healthy blood cells are injected into the blood. The tube enables these healthy cells to go directly to the heart which then spreads throughout the body and eventually form into the bone marrow. This is where the growth of new stem cells will begin.
After the transplant, the patient’s red blood cells and platelet count are closely monitored. Consistent monitoring will help the bone marrow transplant specialist to identify problems, if any, early on and facilitate prompt treatment. The patient may need to hospitalized for a few weeks depending on the risks of complications and type of transplant.
The patient’s transplant specialist will determine the best diagnosis and treatment. In case of any doubts, the patient can contact the transplant coordinator who will book an appointment with the specialist to review the treatment options.