Colorectal Cancer

15 September, 2021

Colorectal cancer is a tumour that grows in the colon or the rectum. It is also called colon or rectum cancer, depending on where it starts. Colon and rectum cancer are grouped as they share many features in common. That’s why it is together known as colorectal cancer. 

Colorectal cancer is a curable disease. Colorectal cancer treatment may include a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Most of these therapies often shrink a cancerous tumour. 

The Colon and Rectum

To better understand colorectal cancer, you need to understand the typical structure and role of the colon and rectum. 

The colon and rectum are part of your intestines, a long hollow tubular organ that runs from your belly to your anal opening. There are two intestines among which the large one is known as the colon. 

The small intestine connects your stomach to the colon, which then connects to your rectum and eventually, your anus. The colon is about five meters long and 2-inch in diameter. 

The Function of Colon and Rectum:

  • Absorb water and few nutrients from what we eat 
  • Form and collect stool 
  • Move waste material out of the body 

Almost all rectum and colon cancer are adenocarcinoma. These cancers start in the cell that makes mucus grease the inside of the colon and rectum. It grows in the large intestine or at the end of the rectum. 

When physicians mention colorectal cancer, it’s clear that they are talking about this type. There are two subtypes of adenocarcinomas named signet ring and mucinous. These may have a worse outlook than other adenocarcinoma subtypes. 


  • Bleeding in Stool 
  • Pain and tenderness in belly area 
  • Nausea and vomiting 
  • Poor weight loss 
  • Yellowish skin and eyes 
  • Dark-coloured stool 

Types of Colorectal Cancer:

Here are some of the common types of colorectal cancer:

  • Carcinoid Tumour:  These tumours grow in the colon and rectum. 
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour: Genetic factors can increase the risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Its symptoms include blood in the stool and vomiting. 
  • Lymphoma: It generally begins in lymph nodes, but it can also start in the colon and rectum. 
  • Sarcoma: This tumour develops in the colon and rectum. It is a very rare type of cancer. Only 0.1 percent of all cancers are colorectal. 

Best Oncologist in India

Cancer is the most dreaded and life-threatening disease, which needs urgent treatment. If you have been diagnosed with colorectal cancer, make sure to get treatment from the best oncologist in India

Choose specialists who have good experience in treating colorectal cancers of all types. The hospital where the oncologist consults is also important so that you can avail the best facilities for treatment. 

Colorectal Cancer Treatment

Your colorectal cancer can be treated with multiple surgeries or medications. Colorectal cancer treatments may include: 

  • Surgery: It is often the primary treatment for early-stage colon cancer. The type of surgery that is done depends on the stage of cancer, location in the clone, and the main goal of the surgery. 
  • Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy means using high-energy rays or particles to demolish cancer cells. It is best for treating rectal cancer. For colon and rectal cancer, treating with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy can do wonders. Using both treatments at the same time is generally called chemoradiation. 
  • Systemic Treatment: Colorectal cancer can also be treated using few drugs. These drugs are inserted through the mouth or directly injected into the bloodstream. The treatment, which comes under systemic therapy, include the following: 
  • Chemotherapy: It is a treatment that is done with an anti-cancer drug that is injected into the vein or taken by the mouth. These medicines reach all parts of the body through the bloodstream. 
  • Targeted Therapy: As researchers discover more about the changes in the cells that cause colorectal cancer, they have developed few new drugs to target these changes. Targeted drugs differ from chemo drugs. They are used either with chemo drugs or when chemo drugs are no longer working. 
  • Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy can be effective, particularly in the cases where cancer tumour shows high instability. It is used to treat advanced levels of colorectal cancer. 

Consult the best oncologist in India who can devise the right treatment plan for your individual case to ensure a speedy recovery.

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