Lung cancer has been one of the top causes of cancer-related death in women as well as men worldwide. More than 90-percent of lung cancers are caused due to the usage of tobacco-based products and smoking. However, there could be other causes as well, including exposure to air pollution, chronic infections, asbestos or radon gas.
In spite of the advancements in diagnosis and lung cancer treatment options over the years, the prognosis for lung cancer patients is still not satisfactory. The response to the present standard treatments is poor except in cases where the cancer is highly localised. Having a better understanding of lung cancer biology might result in the development of more specific and more efficient drugs. In this article, let’s summarise the latest developments in lung cancer biology and treatment options.
There are defects present in the regulatory circuits of lung cancer cells, which govern homeostasis and normal cell proliferation. A normal cell changes to a malignant cancer cell in the lungs in multiple steps through a sequence of epigenetic and genetic changes. Ultimately, it evolves into an invasive cancer through clonal expansion.
After the primary cancer develops, persistent accumulation of epigenetic and genetic abnormalities that are acquired in the process of clonal expansion control the process of metastasis, invasion and resistance to therapies administered for cancer treatment.
The characterisation and identification of such molecular modifications are of great significance for early detection, disease prevention and treatment methods. The knowledge of the genetics and characteristics of the lung tumour will considerably progress the personalised prognosis and appropriate treatment for every patient.
Also Read: SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF LUNG CANCER
A molecular profiling that was done on around 230 lung adenocarcinomas showed high rates of somatic mutation from whole exome sequencing. Genomic alterations include rearrangement (transitions and transversions), point mutations (slicing site alterations, frameshift and nonsense & missense mutations), and somatic copy number modifications.
Many targetable genetic changes have been seen in lung cancer, including:
The scores of these aberrations correspond with the smoking history of patients and their gender & racial differences. This suggests that genetic makeup has a potential role in lung cancer.
Doctors from multiple disciplines, including pulmonologists, thoracic surgeons, medical oncologists and radiation oncologists, work together to devise the right treatment plan for lung cancer for each patient. Depending on the kind of lung cancer and its stage, the treatment plan varies.
Patients diagnosed with NSCLC are generally treated with surgery, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, chemotherapy or a combination of these. Patients suffering from SCLC are generally treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
All these lung cancer treatments are given in the best cancer hospitals in Delhi. Follow your doctor’s advice for the treatment plan given.
We hope you have now got a good idea of lung cancer biology and treatment options available. Wish you or your loved one a speedy recovery from the disease so that you can lead a healthy life again!