Intracranial tumours are a prominent public health hazard, accounting for an increasing morbidity and mortality rates globally. If quantification is needed, it’s readily available, courtesy several prestigious resources. Per Cancer.net, 23,880 adults, including 10,160 females, 13,720 men, along with 3,560 minors, in the US were affected by brain malignancies in 2017. In terms of incidence rates, the victims of this lethal condition can be categorized as 16.2% of children and 83.8% of adults, among which 43% are women and 57% are males. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov indicates Astrocytomas, with an incidence rate at 38.7%, to be the commonest of primary tumours in India, followed by Meningiomas and Glioblastoma. The same resource also brings forth the inclination that males have for Glioblastoma and females for Meningiomas.
The intracranial tumours are hard to identify at the early stages when recovery is possible due to the lack of signs and symptoms. However, at times, certain generic and specific symptoms are visible that should be taken seriously. The generic symptoms are a result of the pressure exerted by a tumour on the spinal cord while specific symptoms originate in wake of the impact caused by tumours on specific parts of the brain controlling specific functions. Depending on the location or size of a tumour, the following symptoms usually surface.
Intracranial tumours can be primary or secondary depending on the site of origin. The origin of cancers can be nailed down to the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells in a particular body organ. The new cell production outnumbers the need, leading to the formation of malignant and non-malignant tumours. While non-malignant tumours are localized, the malignant ones may travel from the initial site to distant organs through the bloodstream. If cancers develop and stay in the intracranial region, they are primary while tumours coming from breast, bladder, kidney, lung and other body parts to metastasis in the brain are secondary.
Although the exact reason for intracranial tumours is yet to be uncovered, it is believed that the inability of genes to self-destruct and control the cell reproduction accounts for the dreaded condition. The tumours manage to evade detection by the immune system, which is tasked to identify and destroy any unwanted, potentially dangerous cell build up throughout the body until they develop fully. While the origin is still a mystery, risk factors are evident. They include: