The Department of Orthopedic Oncology at Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre, exclusive cancer centre with NABH and NABL accreditations and ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certifications in Delhi NCR, India has the right combination of technology and workforce to ensure world-class bone and soft tissue tumor treatments to domestic and offshore patients. Adopting a multi-modality approach for your bone tumor treatment, we put together a multispecialty team for complete cancer care. A typical bone tumor management team will include orthopedic oncologists, radiologists, pathologists, medical oncologists, reconstructive surgeons, surgical and radiation oncologists, counsellors, nurses and physiotherapists. As each aspect is catered to with professionalism and compassion, better patient outcomes are always anticipated.

We are well-equipped to manage all types of Orthopedic Oncological conditions. Whether you are suffering from Primary Bone Cancers like Sarcomas or Metastatic Bone Disease, we can take care of it all. We are also positioned to deliver treatments for several other bone malignancies, such as Myeloma and Lymphoma, along with Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Spine tumors. Benign tumors like Giant Cell Tumors, Aneurysmal Bone Cyst and Chondroblastoma are also managed. Besides bone cancer treatment, we can also support non-oncological orthopedic needs of patients hospitalized for other medical conditions.

We have the technology and skills to carry out super specialized surgical procedures for bone tumor treatment. We put our best foot forward to conduct limb salvage surgery with endoprosthetic replacement, vascularised bone autografts and extracorporeal radiotherapy. Our limb salvage surgery portfolio also includes re-implantation of tumor bone and total femur and total humerus replacement. We also perform specialized soft tissue sarcomas, internal hemipelvectomy, en bloc resections of primary spinal tumors and extended curettage of benign aggressive bone tumors.

Though the nature and scope of surgeries differ vastly, we conduct each with a common objective – to get rid of the malignant tumor while keeping the limb in the best possible shape. Our bone cancer treatment relies on the evidence-based principles supplemented by technology, research and personalized care. As a part of bone tumor management, we also provide counselling services to aid the recovery process. A dedicated desk is also available for overseas patients reaching out to us for advanced cancer care. The desk is well-equipped to facilitate trouble-free, fast registration and consultation. The foreign patients will be provided information on visa duration through an International Patient Coordinator only upon ascertaining the exact medical requirements.

What is Bone Cancer?

Bone malignancies start when cells lose their ability to self destruct. The cells then multiply abnormally leading to a cell build up, which is known as tumour. If the tumour is malignant, it develops in four stages, each characterized by its growth and spread. Why cells lose their innate ability to die down naturally is yet to be determined but some risk factors are known, such as:

Types of Bone Cancer:

Following are the different types of bone cancer:

Causes of Bone Cancer:

The exact causes of bone cancer are not known. However, bone cancer is also associated with hereditary factors, whereas others are related to radiation exposure. In bone cancer, cells begin to grow rapidly and while growing, the healthy cells die; whereas the abnormal cells begin accumulating in a specific body part leading to a tumour. The formed tumour can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Inherited genetic syndromes

Bone malignancies run in families, passing from a generation to the next. Per scientific studies, parents with certain genetic syndromes like Li-Fraumeni and retinoblastoma are likely to pass them to their offspring, making them vulnerable to bone cancers. So, if any of your parents have bone cancer, get yourself screened before the malignancy develops and gains criticality.

Paget’s disease of bone

Human body is capable of replacing old bone tissues with new ones. However, due to certain factors, the body may lose this ability, and when it does, the condition is called Paget’s bone disease. The condition is characterised by fragile bones in the skull, spine, pelvis and legs. Worst still, the patient is prone to bone malignancies, especially in the later stage of the lifecycle.

Radiation therapy

Individuals with prolonged exposure to radiations are more likely to develop bone cancers. In fact, cancer patients put under radiation therapy are ideal candidates for bone cancer.

Signs and Symptoms of Bone Cancer

Bone cancer develops when abnormal tissue or a tumour begins to form in a bone due to anomalous and uncontrolled cell reproduction. A tumour can be benign or malignant depending on certain factors. Benign tumours are localised while the malignant cells may spread to distant body organs, leading to their systematic malfunction and failure. However, cancer originating from bones is not a common sight, accounting for just 1 percent of all cancers. In fact, the cases of benign bone tumours outnumber cancerous bone tumours.

Signs and symptoms of bone cancer are difficult to detect because they coincide with many non-cancerous, general conditions like arthritis, osteoporosis or injury. The signs often differ from individual to individual, depending on the type and location of the tumour. Here are some common and rare signs and symptoms of bone malignancies that should be presented early. In doing so, the chances of symptom relief and safe and complete recovery increase manifolds.


Mild to severe pain in the arms and legs is the first and most common sign of bone cancer. The pain often passes off as an after effect of strenuous physical activity or injury. However, if this symptom is persistent for three months or more, bone cancer screening is recommended.


Swelling around the painful area for weeks is a generic clinical indication for bone malignancy. The patient may also experience a lump and tenderness in the location of pain. The thigh, shin and upper arm are considered to be the most common sites for tumours to germinate.

Pathological Fractures

Anyone with bone tumour is susceptible to pathological fractures occurring in the bones that are weakened due to the presence of cancer cells. The bones become fragile and can achieve fracture even in wake of a minor accident or fall. It’s not always your bad luck to have recurring fractures, as bone malignancies can be the reason at times

Restricted movement

When the tumour develops in close proximity to the joint, the movement of the joint is restricted. With the growth of the tumour, the patient may find it difficult to move the whole limb. In case the leg bone is affected, a limp may surface while an infected spine often leads to lack of sensation and tingling in legs. The tumour protrudes into nearby nerves, hampering their function and causing numbness.

Systemic Symptoms

There is set of symptoms not associated directly with the bone. In medical terminology, they are known as Systemic Symptoms. These are generic symptoms like weight loss, fatigue, etc. If cancer spreads to other organs like lungs, the person may experience trouble in breathing.

The prominent Systemic Symptoms may include, but not limited to:

Re-occurring fever

Fatigue, drowsiness and no inclination for any physical activity

Unintentional and excessive weight loss


Screening and Diagnosis of Bone Cancer

Doctor may recommend one or more imaging tests to evaluate the area of concern which include radiographs, MRI and/or CT scan.

Accurate diagnosis is the key in the management of bone cancers. Doctor may recommend a procedure to remove a sample of tissue (biopsy) from the tumour for laboratory testing. It is recommended that biopsy should be performed by the same surgeon who is going to do the final tumour surgery. A wrong biopsy may cause cancer to spread.

Once diagnosis of a cancer is confirmed, your doctor will ask for some further investigations to rule out the spread of disease which can include a bone scan, PET scan, CT scan of chest etc.

Treatment of Bone Cancer


It is the most common type of bone cancer treatment. It involves the removal of cancerous bone tissues via a surgical procedure. After surgery, radiation or chemotherapy may be performed for clearing any remaining cancer cells.

Radiation therapy

In this procedure, high doses of radiation therapy are used for shrinking tumours or cancer cells. However, radiation therapy can even damage surrounding healthy cells during the recovery procedure.


In the procedure, certain drugs are used for killing the multiplying cells, such as cancer cells, as well as cells lining the gastrointestinal tract. This treatment option also has certain side effects.

Risk Factors of Bone Cancer

While the causes of bone cancer are unknown, doctors have determined the given risk factors that increase the chances of cancer:

Genetic syndromes

There are certain inherited genetic syndromes, such as hereditary retinoblastoma and Li-Fraumeni syndrome, are passed down to the family lines. This increases the risk of bone cancer in the entire family line.

Paget’s disease

This condition usually occurs in older patients and increases the risk of bone cancer.

Radiation therapy

Exposure to higher doses of radiation for treating any type of cancer may also develop the risk of bone cancer after certain years.

Patient & Family

Opportunity to Help


As a society, RGCIRC is looking forward to get support from generous people

Read More

It is a fact that there are absolutely no substitutes to replace human bloo...

Read More

Volunteers play an important role in today’s hospitals. They help the hos...

Read More

Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre is today counted amongst Asia’s premier exclusive cancer centres that offer unique advantage of cutting edge technology, put to use by renowned super specialists. This potent combination of man and machine ensures world-class cancer care to not only patients from India, but also from the neighboring SAARC countries and others.

Sir Chotu Ram Marg, Sector - 5, Rohini Industrial Area, Rohini, New Delhi - 110085, India | +91-11-47022222
OPD Timings: 09:00 am to 05:00 pm (All weekdays except Sunday and Holiday)
Emergency Services: 24x7 All weekdays

Squadron Leader Mahendra Kumar Jain Marg, Block K, Niti Bagh, New Delhi - 110049 | +91-11-45822222
OPD Timings: 09:00 am to 05:00 pm (All Weekdays except Sunday and Holiday)
Emergency Services: 24x7 All Weekdays

Subscribe Today For Our Healthy Tips Newsletter